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Along the way they developed principles—how reward and punishment work, how factors influence learning, etc.—that were shown to hold true across a range of species.Still, the assumption was that invertebrates (insects, snails and the like) had diverged from the vertebrates so long ago (half a billion years) and have such small and loosely organized brains, that they couldn’t possibly learn the same way.Widely studied in Germany for their role in agriculture, they exhibited the necessary traits for research on learning.A pioneer in the field, Bitterman introduced hives to Mānoa more than two decades ago, contracting with professional beekeepers to tend them and harvest the honey.The challenge with invertebrates is to find test subjects that have good sensory capabilities to distinguish rewards, an observable behavior to indicate their response and motivation for participating in the first place.
Years of horrific dates, unsuccessful relationships, and observations of men and women in general has led Christopher to create The Bitter Women’s Guide to Dating -- a sequel to his first dating guide for men, The Bitter Man’s Guide to Dating.
For example, if they see a triangle, then the sugar water is in the yellow disk, but if they see a circle, then the sugar water is in the peppermint-scented disk. Perhaps the key biological mechanism lies in something else animals have in common—the synapse, where neurotransmitters carry messages between cells.