Psychological abuse in dating relationships
This type of dating violence is also characterized by attempts to isolate and economically subordinate the abused partner.
Straus (1999) estimated that it was present in less than 1.5% of the violent marital relationships that he studied.
Mutual Violent Control identifies violent exchanges in which both partners are violent and controlling.
It is the least common type of violence of the four in Johnson’s typology.
Dating partners include both casual dates and individuals in long-term dating relationships.
All three forms of abuse — physical, sexual and emotional — can coexist, or the abuse can be characterized by any one of the three.
While some forms of abusive behaviour, such as acts of physical assault, could result in charges under the Criminal Code of Canada, others, such as ridiculing or otherwise being verbally abusive, are harmful but not criminal offences.
Dating violence has become an issue of increasing concern to researchers and practitioners over the past three decades.
Physical Violence occurs when one partner uses physical force to control the other.
This paper considers how dating violence is defined, what its consequences are, and what can be done about it.
For the purpose of this paper, dating violence is defined as any intentional physical, sexual or psychological assault on a person by a dating partner.
The use of violence is conflict-based and, while it reoccurs, it does not usually escalate to severe violence.
Johnson suggests that this is the most common form of dating violence and that men and women use it to equal degrees.
It includes behaviour such as hitting a partner with a hard object or assault with weapons.