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The lady does not deny her brother's right, but enters into a long discussion with him about it, part of which is touching and effective, hut most of it very tedious ; in the midst of all which Hymeneo presents himself, and after explaining who he is and what are his intentions, and especially after admitting, that, under the circum- stances of the case, the Marquis might justly have Digitized by Google Chap. The two' pieces are very different, and mark the ex- tremes of the various experiments Naharro tried in order to produce a dramatic effect. 15 The “ Aquilana,” absurd as its story is, approaches, perhaps, even nearer to absolute regularity in its form. Well, by my faith, it grieves ray heart to see That thou so mortal art. Fadrique dc Toledo, Enri * quez Alrnirante de Castilla , y & Von be said for the other languages that are used? This family became extinct, in the male branch, in 1092; and in 1113, the crown of Provence was transferred, by the marriage of its heir, to Raymond Berenger, the third Count of Barcelona. 4 At the very commencement of the twelfth century, therefore, we may fairly consider a Provencal refinement to have been introduced into the northeastern comer of Spain ; and it is worth notice, that this is just about the period when, as we have already seen, the ultimately national school of poetry began to show itself in quite the oppo- site corner of the Peninsula, amidst the mountains of Biscay and Asturias. most distinguished of its members gave the widest ex- tent to its empire by broad conquests from the Moors; but later the power of the kings of Aragon became gradually circumscribed, and their territory diminished, by marriages, successions, and military disasters. But its great charm is to be sought in a beautiful simplicity, which, belonging to no age, is the seal of genius in all.
The fourth, however, brings the hero and lover into the lady's house, leaving his attendants in the street, who confess their cowardice to one an- other, and agree to riui away, if the Marquis appears. They escape, but leave a cloak, which betrays who they are, and the Marquis remains undisputed master of the ground at the end of the act. The Marquis, of- fended in the nicest point of Castilian honor, — the very point on which the plots of so many later Spanish dra- mas turn, — resolves at once to put both of the guilty parties to death, though their offence is no greater than that of having been secretly in the same house together. 301 killed his sister, the whole is arranged for a double wedding of masters and servants, and closes with a spirited villancico in honor of Love and his victories. Your answers are so sharp, They pierce my very bowels through and through. 23 But it is not likely that any of his plays were acted, except in the same way with Vicente’s and Enzina's ; that is, before a moderate num- ber of persons in some great man’s house , 34 at Naples, 1813, 8vo, Tom. 23 ** Las mas dcstas obrillas anda- van ya fuera de mi obediencia y vo- luntad.” 83 In the opening of the Introyio to the “ Trofea.” 34 I am quite aware, that, in the important passage already cited from Mendez Silva, on the first acting of plays in 1492, we have the words, “ Afio de 1492 comenzaron en Cas- tilla las compafiias k representar nub/i- cammtc comcdias de Juan de la Enzi- na ” ; but what the word nublicamoitc was intended to mean is shown by the words that follow : M festejando con cllas a V. Thus things continued under twelve princes of the Burgundian race, who make little show in the wars of their times, but who seem to have governed their states with a moderation and gentleness not to have been expected amidst the general disturbance of the world. 309 Barcelona and Marseilles; and if the Provencals had somewhat more of gentleness and culture, the Catalo- nians, from the share they had taken in the Moorish wars, possessed a more strongly marked character, and one developed in more manly proportions. Digitized by Google 310 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE [Pmion I. After these, the two poems of Perez de Guz- man that make most pretensions from their length are an allegory on the Four Cardinal Virtues, in sixty-tliree stanzas, and another on the Seven Deadly Sins and the Seven Works of Mercy, in a hundred. 5 The longest of his works, now known to exist, is an allegorical poem of twelve hundred lines on the death of his uncle, the Marquis of Santillana, in which the Seven Cardinal Virtues, together with Poetry and 2 Chn Snica de Don Juan el II., Afio 1437, c. Its versification, too, is excellent; free and flowing, with occasionally an antique air and turn, that are true to the character of the age that produced it,- and in- crease its picturcsquencss and effect.
Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google HISTORY or SPANISH LITERATURE. Such books as I wanted were then, it is true, less valued in Spain than they are now, but it was chiefly because the country was in a depressed and unnatural state ; and, if its men of letters were more than commonly at leisure to gratify the curiosity of a stranger, their number had been materially dimin- ished by political persecution, and intercourse with them was difficult because they had so little connec- tion with each other, and were so much shut out from the world around them. 14 13 “Comedia a noticia” he call B them, in the Address to the Reader, and “ comedia k fantasia ’* ; and explains the first to be “ de cosa nota y vista en realidad, ” illustrating the remark by his plays on recruiting and on the riotous life of a cardinal’s servants. Z Digitized by Google 302 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. What is more singular, this drama approaches to a fulfilment of the requisitions of the unities, for it has but one proper action, which is the marriage of Febea ; it does not extend beyond the period of twenty-four hours ; and the whole passes in the street before the house of the lady, unless, indeed, the fifth act passes within the house, which is doubtful . But it is only necessary to road what its friends have said in defence of this position, to be satisfied that it is untenable. The life of its author is in Zurita, “ Anales de Aragon ” (Lib. Tlie flowing robes, inwrought with gold, The daucera wore ? Long- fellow's beautiful translation of the Co- plas, first printed, Boston, 1833, 12mo, and often since.
In some respects, the time of my visit was favorable to the purposes for which I made it; in others, it was not. It has even the “Gracioso,” or Droll Servant, who makes love to the heroine’s maid ; a character which is also found in Na- harro’s “ Serafina,” but which Lope de Vega above a century afterwards claimed as if invented by himself . Bid me do my best, In humble service of my love to thee ; So shalt thou put me to the proof, and know If what I say accord with what 1 feel. Were my desire to bid thee sene quite clear, Perchance thy oilers would not be so prompt. 90 It is singular, however, that a very severe passage on the Pope and the clergy' at Koine, in the “ Jacinta,” wus not struck out, ed. Inigo Loprz de Mendoza srgundo Du- those great houses were accounted qruc del Infant ado.” So that the rep- public representations, rose n tat ions in the halls and chapels of vol. Sec Torres Amat, Prologo to “ Merno- rias dc lo® Eseritores Catalanos, ” and elsewhere. It be- gins— Per manta* gutau m’ e s datz Joys e deport c so Ulz. Where are the gentle knights, that came To kneel, and breatlie love's ardent flame, Low at their feet 7 Where is the eong of the Troubadour 7 Where are the lute and gay tambour They loved of yore 7 Where is the maxy dance of old.
Martinez de la Rosa, who has since been one of the ; leaders of the nation as well as of its literature, was shut up in Feiion on the coast of Barbary. 7 Alfonso the Second, however, who received the crown of Aragon in 1162, and wore it till 1196, is admitted by all to have been a Troubadour. To this sect — which, in some points, opposed the preten- sions of the See of Home, and was at last exterminated by a crusade under the Papal authority — belonged nearly all the contemporary Troubadours, whose poetry is full of their sufferings and remonstrances. Mm ya Uis males eatrauos Dc II me nlan^an fnrijoso, Vomc a huscar el repewo I)e lus train josos lianas. Muerta es toda naridad ; Todo hien en ti cs y» imicrto; — • Acojome para cl puerto, Fuyendo tu tomfieatad. On three other occasions, at least, Don Jorge is mentioned in the great Spanish historian as a person- age important in the affairs of his time ; but on yet a fourth, — that of the death of his father, Rodrigo, — the words of Mariana are so beautiful and apt, that I trans cribe them in the original .( “ Su ^Tiijo D. va8 muy elegantes, en quo hay virtu- / des poeticas y ricas esmaltes dc ingc- nio, y sentencias groves, a manera de endccha, llord la muerte dc su padre.” Lib. Both the sons of the first Count of Aranda, Miguel and Pedro, were lovers of letters ; but Pedro only was imbued with a poetical spirit beyond that of his age, and emancipated from its affectations and follies.
Moratin was languishing in Paris, while his comedies were applauded to the very echo by his enemies at home. Of him we still possess a few not inelegant cobias, or stanzas, address- ed to his lady, which are curious from the circumstance that they constitute the oldest poem in the modem dia- lects of Spain, whose author is known to us ; and one that is probably as old, or nearly as old, as any of the anonymous poetry of Castile and the North. As to the word cobias, I cannot but think — notwithstanding all the refined discussions about it in Ravnouard, (Tom. 9 10 In their great distress, the principal ally of the Albigenses and Troubadours was Peter the Second of Aragon, who, in 1213, perished nobly fighting in their cause at the dis- astrous battle of Murct. brother of Pero Fernandez, — each poem in about seventy or eighty octave stanzas, of arte mayor, but neither of them as good as the ‘ 4 Vanity of Life.” Gcrdnimo also translated the Sixth Satire of Juvenal into capias dc arte mayor , and published it at Valladolid in 1510, in 4to. His poems, which he published in 1513, are dedicated to his widowed mother, and arc partly religious and partly secular.
In the second act, Hymeneo enters with his sonants and musicians, and they sing a cancion which reminds us of the sonnet in Molicre’s “ Misantrope," and a vi- llancico which is but little better. But the number of feet in each of his lines is not always exact, nor are the rhymes always good, though, on the whole, a harmonious result is generally produced. 307 cm nations lasted, Provence was disturbed chiefly by the Visigoths, who soon passed onward to Spain, leav- ing few traces of their character behind them, and by the Burgundians, the mildest of all the Teutonic in- vaders, who did not reach the South of France till they had been long resident in Italy, and, when they came, established themselves at once as the permanent mas- ters of that tempting country. Two of the treatises of Alonso were printed ; — the “ Oracional,” or Book of Devo- tion, mentioned in the text as written for Perez de Guzman, which appear- ed at Murcia in 1187, and the “Doc- trinal de Cavalleros,” which appear- ed the same year at Burgos. Digitized by Google 400 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. The occupations of Perez de Guzman, in his retire- ment on his estates at Batras, where he passed the latter part of his life, and where he died, about 1470, were suited to his own character and to the spirit of his age. 298, 340-342; and at the end of Ochoa’s “ Mimas Incditas de Don Ifiigo Lopez de Mendoza,” Paris, 1844, 8vo, pp. Sometimes lie discovers a spirit in advance of 17 The “Generaciones y Semblan- zas ’’ first appeared in 1512, as part of a rifadmento in Spanish of Giovanni Co- lonna's “ Mare Jlistoriarum, M which may have been the work of Perez de Guzman. 137, after long accounts of Trojans, Greeks, Romans, Fathers of the Church, and others, taken from Colonna. But he oftencr discovers a willingness to rebuke its vices, as w r hen, discussing the character of Gonzalo Nuflez de Guzman, he turns aside from his subject and says solemnly, — “And no doubt it is a noble thing and worthy of praise to preserve the memory of noble families and of the services they have rendered to their kings and to the commonwealth ; but here, in Castile, this is now held of small account. [Period I Manrique a confirmation of all the honors and rights of which their father had been wrongfully deprived. The same tone is heard, though somewhat softened, when he touches on the days of his youth and of the court of John the Second, already passed away ; and it is felt the more deeply, because the festive scenes he describes come into such strong contrast with the dark and solemn thoughts to which they lead him.
NEW YORK: HARPER A NO BROTHERS, 83 CLIFF STREET M DCCC XLIX. “ As to the kinds of dra- mas,” he says, “ it seems to me that two arc sufficient for our Castilian language : dramas founded on knowledge, and dramas founded on fancy .” 13 The “ Trofea,” no doubt, was intended by him to belong to the first class. Can words and ways so kind, And full of courtesy, he called abuse ? 16 This is an old proverb, “ A otro can con esse huesso.” It occurs more than once in Don Quixote. In the lntroyto to the Se- rafina,” he makes a jest of the whole, telling the audience, — But tou must ull keen wide awake, Or else in vain you ’ll undertake To comprclu Mid ilic differing speech. They, therefore, did not prob- ably produce much effect at first on the condition of the drama, so far as it was then developed in Spain. 3 The Provencal poets, many of whom w-ere noble by birth, and all of whom, as a class, were attached to the court and its aristocracy, naturally followed their liege lady, in considerable num- bers, from Arles to Barcelona, and willingly established themselves in her new capital, under a prince full of knightly accomplishments and yet not disinclined to the arts of peace. The Pyr- enees made then, as they make now, no very serious difference between the languages spoken on their oppo- site declivities ; similarity of pursuits had long before induced a similarity of manners in the population of 3 E. Schmidt, Geschichte Aragoniens im Mittclalter, Leipzig, 1828, 8 yo, p. 5 Political causes, however, similar to those which first brought the spirit of Provence from Arles and Mar- seilles to Barcelona, soon carried it farther onward towards the centre of Spain. Un- der eleven princes, however, in the direct line, and three more in the indirect, they maintained their right to the kingdom, down to the year 1410, when, in the person of Ferdinand, it was united to Castile, and the solid foundations were laid on which the Spanish monarchy has ever since rested. The Coplas, as might be anticipated, produced a 10 The lines on the court of John II.
Washington Irving, equally honored on both sides of the Atlantic, but especially cherished by- Spaniards for the enduring monument he has erected to the history of their early adventures, and for the charming fictions, whose scene he has laid in their romantic country; — these fortunate circumstances nat- urally opened to me whatever facilities for collecting books could be afforded by the kindness of persons in places so distinguished, or by their desire to spread among their countrymen at home a literature they knew so well and loved so much. Rich, formerly a Consul of the United States in Spain; the same bibliographer to whom Mr. Prescott have avowed sim- ilar obligations, and to whose personal regard I owe hardly less than I do to his extraordinary knowledge of rare and curious books, and his extraordinary suc- cess in collecting them. Still, still, these bitterest sweets of life I never will ask to forget ; For the lover’s truest glory is fonnd When unshaken his fate is met.