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meaning "town on the Monnow") is the historic county town of Monmouthshire, Wales.
It is situated where the River Monnow meets the River Wye, within 2 miles (3.2 km) of the border with England.
A new castle was built at Monmouth, holding commanding views over the surrounding area from a sound defensive site and exerting control over both river crossings and the area's important resources of farmland, timber and minerals.
Initially it would have been a motte and bailey castle, later rebuilt in stone, and refortified and developed over time.
The priory may have once been the residence of the monk Geoffrey of Monmouth, who was born around 1100 and is best known for writing the chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae ("History of the Kings of Britain").Monmouth's population in the 2011 census was 10,508, rising from 8,877 in 2001.The town was the site of a small Roman fort, Blestium, and became established after the Normans built a castle here after 1067.During the period of turmoil between the supporters of King Henry III and the barons who sought to curtail his power, the town was the scene of a major battle in 1233, in which the king's forces were routed by the troops of Richard Marshal, Earl of Pembroke.