Validating the school culture survey
Some rural schools were consolidated, a school bus system was inaugurated, and the school term was lengthened.
But the Great Depression ended reform, and by the early 1930s, many teachers were accepting worthless county scrip as payment for their services.
For some women, it was a short step from the fight against demon rum to the struggle for voting rights.
The suffrage movement gained an important ally with the election of Governor Charles Brough in 1916.
A new crisis in education faced Junius Marion Futrell, who was elected to governor in 1932.
Futrell, who believed that anything beyond an eighth grade education should be reserved for the privileged few, set about enacting his campaign pledge: retrenchment, and for him, this meant a reduction in state expenditures.
In 1900, Arkansas schools ranked among the worst in the country in all indices: school attendance, length of school term, per pupil expenditure, ratio of students to teachers, and educational level of teachers.
Arkansas used convict leasing as a revenue-generating measure, but prisoners were often kept in horrible conditions, and Arkansas governors began to agitate for its abolition in the 1880s.
In 1900, there were 4,903; by 1920, there were 5,118.