Gravity's effects are cumulative; by contrast, the effects of positive and negative charges tend to cancel one another, making electromagnetism relatively insignificant on astronomical length scales.The remaining two interactions, the weak and strong nuclear forces, decline very rapidly with distance; their effects are confined mainly to sub-atomic length scales.At this stage, matter in the Universe was mainly a hot, dense plasma of negatively charged electrons, neutral neutrinos and positive nuclei.This era, called the photon epoch, lasted about 380 thousand years.It is possible to see objects that are now further away than 13.799 billion light-years because space itself has expanded.This means that objects which are now 46 billion light years away can still be seen in their distant past, because at that time they were much closer to us.A version of the model with a cosmological constant (Lambda) and cold dark matter, known as the Lambda-CDM model, is the simplest model that provides a reasonably good account of various observations about the Universe.
Further observational improvements led to the realization that our Solar System is located in the Milky Way galaxy, which is one of many galaxies in the Universe.
Since the Planck epoch, the Universe has been expanding to its present form, possibly with a very brief period of cosmic inflation which caused the Universe to reach a much larger size in less than 10 After the Planck epoch and inflation came the quark, hadron, and lepton epochs.
Together, these epochs encompassed less than 10 seconds of time following the Big Bang.
Eventually, at a time known as recombination, electrons and nuclei formed stable atoms, which are transparent to most wavelengths of radiation.
With photons decoupled from matter, the Universe entered the matter-dominated era.
and survive in modern languages, e.g., the German words Das All, Weltall, and Natur for Universe.